GROSS/FINE MOTOR MILESTONES

SELF HELP AND ORAL MOTOR MILESTONES

COMMUNICATION MILESTONES

0-6 months

  • Moves mouth to source of stimulation (nipple/breast)
  • Takes toy to mouth
  • Hold rattle for extended periods of time
  • Stands firmly when held
  • Sits supported for short periods of time (3-5 months)
  • Able to bear weight on forearms
  • Reaches for and holds objects

6-9 months

  • Supports self in sitting
  • Takes feet to mouth
  • Takes hands to feet
  • Able to rotate upper body independently of lower body
  • May pull to stand at furniture
  • Protective response when falling forward
  • Picks up small objects with several fingers and thumb
  • Transfers objects from hand to hand
  • Drops one toy when given another
  • Gets to sitting from lying down

10-12 months

  • Crawls well
  • Has wide variety of sitting positions
  • Stands holding on
  • Cruises around furniture turning slightly in intended direction
  • Can hold small object between thumb and index finger
  • Points with index finger
  • Walks with one hand held

13-18 months

  • Imitates scribble
  • Builds two to five block tower
  • Squeezes toys
  • Enjoys walking activities and pulling toys
  • Throws and picks up objects
  • By 13 months, walks a few steps without support
  • By 18 months, walks with no support
  • Likes to climb
  • Seats self in small chair
  • Creeps up stairs on hands and knees
  • Holds crayon in fist, thumb up
  • Precise controlled release

19-24 months

  • Pushes a stroller or a cart
  • Runs
  • Squats to play
  • Walks upstairs one at a time; not alternating feet
  • Jumps off floor with both feet
  • Snips paper with scissors
  • Strings two or three beads
  • Crawls backward down stairs

2-3 years

  • Runs with whole foot contact
  • Jumps over objects
  • Throws ball while standing, without falling
  • Catches ball from straight arm position
  • Pulls pants off and on
  • Rides tricycle
  • Walks up and down stairs with alternating feet
  • Swings and climbs
  • Hops on one foot
  • Balances on one foot for 10 seconds
  • Can build blocks horizontally and vertically
  • Draws a circle and a cross

4-5 years

  • Gallops and skips
  • Completes 3 sit ups
  • Draws square
  • Cuts out circle and square
  • Grasps marker between thumb and pad of index finger
  • Touches each finger to thumb
  • Colors between vertical lines

6-7 years

  • Maintains balance and rhythm using opposing arm and leg movements
  • Skips 10 feet
  • Hops on one foot 20 feet without losing balance
  • Completes 5 sit ups
  • Performs 8 push ups
  • Bounces and catches small ball

0-6 months

  • Sucks well
  • Makes sucking sounds
  • Tongue moves up and down, in and out
  • Mouth opens for food (3-5 months)
  • Tongue thrusts when the spoon is withdrawn, food is spit out (3-5 months)
  • Begins eating cereals, fruits, and juices (3-5 months)

6-9 months

  • Can drink slowly with cup but cannot control flow with tongue
  • Jaws move up and down
  • Upper lip comes down well on spoon
  • Lifts cup with handle
  • Eats dry cereal, meats, vegetables, fruits with fingers
  • Holds, bites, chews food

10-12 months

  • Drinks well from a cup
  • Enjoys some solid food
  • Feeds self finger foods
  • Takes off shoes and socks
  • Cooperates in dressing
  • Stops drooling

13-18 months

  • Full precise use of cup, no chokes, few drips
  • Begins independent use of spoon
  • Chews most foods well
  • Brushes teeth with assistance
  • Combs or brushes hair
  • Puts socks on
  • Shows wet or soiled pants
  • Moves about house with adults
  • Unzips zipper
  • Gets into adult chair unaided

19-24 months

  • Drinks from a straw
  • Has lip control when cup is moved away from mouth
  • Can drink 1 oz from a cup without pausing
  • Indicates pants are wet
  • Gestures to indicate toilet needs
  • Uses spoon to feed self without excessive spilling

2-3 years

  • Wipes hands and face
  • Chooses toys selectively
  • Recognizes family members names
  • Asks for help with personal needs
  • Acts out familiar routines
  • Points to more difficult body parts (elbow, knee)
  • Holds crayon in fist
  • Unbuttons large buttons
  • Can snip on line using scissors
  • Dries own hands
  • Pours well from half-full pitcher
  • Puts on shoes without tying
  • Undresses completely without help by 36 months
  • Unbuttons front buttons by 36 months

4-5 years

  • Independently fastens seatbelt
  • Zippers efficiently
  • Laces shoes
  • Serves self at table (parent holding serving dish)
  • Takes cares of own toileting needs
  • Dresses and undresses independently; requires assistance with ties and back fastenings
  • Combs or brushes hair
  • Uses table knife for spreading butter, jelly, or peanut butter

6-7 years

  • Makes simple breakfast and lunch
  • Sets and clears table without assistance
  • Ties initial knot in shoelace
  • Selects clothing appropriate for temperature and occasion
  • Has complete independence in bathing
  • Plans ahead to meet toileting needs before beginning an activity

0-6 months

  • Reacts to loud sounds
  • Turns head toward a sound source
  • Watches your face when you speak
  • Vocalizes pleasure and displeasure sounds (laughs, giggles, cries, or fusses)
  • Makes noise when talked to
  • Repeats the same sound
  • Uses a different cry to indicate different needs
  • Uses the phonemes: “b“, “p” and “m” in babbling

7-12 months

  • Understands “no-no”
  • Babbles (says “ba-ba-ba” or “ma-ma-ma”)
  • Tries to communicate by actions or gestures
  • Uses speech sounds rather than only crying to get attention
  • Responds to simple requests
  • Responds to own name
  • Recognizes words for common items
  • Uses a large variety of sounds when babbling
  • Uses sound approximations
  • Imitates some adult speech and intonation patterns
  • Uses nouns almost exclusively
  • Has an expressive vocabulary of 3-5 words
  • Understands simple commands

13-18 months

  • Attends to a book or toy for about two minutes
  • Follows simple directions accompanied by gestures
  • Answers simple directions accompanied by gestures
  • Answers simple questions nonverbally
  • Points to objects, pictures, and family members
  • Makes request for more of desired item
  • Omits some initial consonants and almost all final consonants
  • Produces mostly unintelligible speech
  • Receptively identifies 1-3 body parts
  • Follows simple commands
  • Has an expressive vocabulary of 5-20 words or more (mostly nouns)
  • Combines gesture and vocalization

19-24 months

  • Follows simple commands without gestures
  • Points to simple body parts such as “nose”
  • Understands simple verbs such as “eat”, “sleep”
  • Correctly pronounces most vowels and “n, m, p, h“, especially in the beginning of syllables and short words. Also begins to use other speech sounds.
  • Asks for common foods by name
  • Makes animal sounds such as “moo”.
  • Starting to combine words such as “more milk”.
  • Has an expressive vocabulary of 50-100 or more words
  • Has a receptive vocabulary of 300 or more words
  • Starts to combine nouns and verbs
  • Begins to use pronouns
  • Maintains unstable voice control
  • Answers “What’s that?” questions
  • Enjoys listening to stories
  • Is approximately 25-50% intelligible to strangers

2-3 years

  • Knows about 50 words at 24 months
  • Knows some spatial concepts such as “in” and “on”
  • Knows pronouns such as “you”, “me”, and “her”
  • Knows descriptive words such as “big” and “happy”
  • Speech is 80% intelligible by 3 years
  • Understands one and all
  • Verbalizes toilet needs
  • Requests items by name
  • Identifies several body parts
  • Asks 1 to 2 word questions
  • Uses 4 to 5 word phrases
  • Has an expressive vocabulary of 500 or more words
  • Has a receptive vocabulary of 500-900 or more words
  • Uses approximately 27 phonemes
  • Mastered the following sounds: p, b, t, d, k, g, f, m, ng, n, w, h
  • Answers simple questions
  • Begins to use more pronouns such as “you” and “I”
  • Speaks in two to three word phrases
  • Uses question inflection to ask for something (e.g., “My ball?”)
  • Begins to use plurals such as “shoes” or “socks” and regular past tense verbs such as “jumped”

3-4 years

  • Groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.
  • Identifies colors
  • Uses most speech sounds but may distort some of the more difficult sounds such as I, r, s, sh, ch, y, v, z, th. These sounds may not be mastered until age 7 or 8.
  • Uses consonants in the beginning, middle, and end of words. Some of the more difficult consonants may be distorted, but attempts to say them.
  • Able to describe the use of objects such as “fork”, “car”, etc.
  • Has fun with language. Enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities such as, “Is that an elephant on your head?”
  • Expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him or her
  • Uses verbs that end in “ing”, such as “walking”, “talking”
  • Answers simple questions such as “What do you do when you are hungry?”
  • Repeats sentences
  • Follows 2 and 3 step commands
  • Asks and answers simple questions
  • Uses 5-7 words in sentences
  • Has 1800-2000 word receptive vocabulary
  • Uses 1200-1500 or more spoken words by 4 years
  • Speech is 90% intelligible
  • Masters 50% of consonants and blends
  • Appropriately uses “is”, “are”, and “am” in sentences
  • Tells 2 events in chronological order
  • Uses some contractions irregular plurals, future tense verbs and, conjunctions

4-5 years

  • Understands spatial concepts such as “behind” and “next to”
  • Understands complex questions
  • Speech is understandable but makes mistakes pronouncing long, difficult, or complex words such as “hippopotamus”
  • Describes how to do things such as painting a picture
  • Defines words
  • Lists items that belong in a category such as animals, vehicles, etc.
  • Answers “why” questions
  • Understands concept of numbers up to 3
  • Recognizes 3-4 colors
  • Counts to 10 by rote
  • Has receptive vocabulary of 2500-3500 words
  • Listens to short, simple stories
  • Uses sentences of 6-8 words
  • Has an expressive vocabulary of 2000 or more words
  • Enjoys rhymes

5-6 years

  • Understands time sequences (what happened first, second, third, etc…)
  • Carries out a series of three directions
  • Understands rhyming
  • Engages in conversation
  • Sentences can be 8 or more words in length
  • Uses compound and complex sentences
  • Describes objects
  • Uses imagination to create stories
  • Uses past tense and future tense appropriately
  • Names opposites
  • Has a receptive vocabulary of 13,000 words
  • Counts to 30 by rote
  • Uses conjunctions
  • Sequentially names days of the weeks